contributors to this species:
||Dorsal spines (total):
1. The head is more or less flattened, the nostril nearly rounded,
mouth inferior. There are three pairs of barbels, 1 pair of maxillary
barbel and 2 pairs of mandibular barbels. Inhabits mainly brackish
estuaries and lagoonsand also occurs in freshwaters. Found on shallow
muddy bottoms and feeds on fish and shrimps. Two annual cycles of
slower growth occur during the dry seasons (March and August to
November). Life span is three to four years. Sexually mature at
1.5 to 2 years of age. Reproduction takes place from November to
April. Consumed as food and marketed fresh. The skull is sold throughout
the world as a crucifix. The underside of the skull covering has
a bony structure which can be seen when all the flesh and soft parts
are removed. It then looks like a crucifix or like a painting of
Christ crucified, and is surrounded by a Weberian bone in form of
a halo. The upper rough part of the skull roof which is also visible
on the living fish, looks like a Monk with a cowl and hood and his
arms outstretched in prayer. Others see this as a Roman soldier
with armour on his chest and the dorsal fin spine is the lance which
he opened up Christs side.
proops, Sciadeichthys proops
and eastern South America: Caribbean Sea and northern coast
of South America, Colombia to Brazil: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana,
Guyana, Puerto Rico, Suriname and Venezuela. Type locality:
53. The Crucifix Catfish.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2009. FishBase.
World Wide Web electronic publication.www.fishbase.org, version
Marceniuk, Alexandre P.; Menezes, Naércio A.
(2007). "Systematics of the family Ariidae (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes),
with a redefinition of the genera" Zootaxa 1416: 1–126.