Two pairs of barbels on rostral region, one pair on
lower jaw, one pair on posterior end of maxilla; end
of maxilla barbel beyond anal fin origin; pectoral
spine filament long, reaching anal fin origin. Colouration:
Dorsal, pectoral, and pelvic fin membranes black;
anal fin membrane black distally (some individuals
white), white proximally; body silver gray or blue
grey dorsally, silver white ventrally. Habitat:
Chiefly marine, common around river mouths and also
entering river estuaries. Diet: Feeds
on small fishes and invertebrates, such as crustaceans.
Reproduction: reproductive season
in French Guiana is from May to November; male incubates
the eggs in his mouth until they hatch; for a few
days the newborn (30-40mm) may hide in the mouth of
the male in the presence of danger.
and Atlantic coastal rivers of South America, from
Colombia to the mouth of the Amazon River.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly.
Editors. 2011. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic
publication. www.fishbase.org, version. Mol, H.A. Jan, The Freshwater Fishes
of Suriname. BRILL, Leiden Boston, 2012. 889 p. Taylor, W.R. and N.A. Menezes, 1978.
Ariidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification
sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing
Area 31). volume 1. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. Uyeno, T., K. Matsuura and E. Fujii
(eds.), 1983. Fishes trawled off Suriname and French
Guiana. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center,
Tokyo, Japan. 519 p.