coastal waters, from estuaries onto the continental
shelf. Found mostly on mudflats; males incubate eggs
in its mouth. Has a sharp and venomous dorsal and
pectoral spines that can inflict extremely painful
injuries. Marine; freshwater and brackish. An important
food fish. Description: Dorsal spines
(total): 1; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 17 - 21;
Vertebrae: 53 - 58. Dorsomedian head groove bordered
posteriorly by slightly raised frontals and forming
a "V". Gill rakers usually absent on hind
aspect of first 2 gill arches. Caudal fin lobes slender
and tapered. Adipose fin short-based and located posteriorly.
Diet: Mainly opportunistic and carnivorous;
feeding on sea urchins, crustaceans, fish, prawns,
loose scales, and detritus. Etymology:
The species is named 'bilineata' for two lines (on
Pacific: Persian Gulf to the Indo-Malayan
region, northern Australia, Queensland, and north
to southern Japan. Type locality:
Pondichéry ... Rangoon.
Ferraris, C.J. Jr.,
2007. Checklist of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes:
Siluriformes), and catalogue of siluriform primary
types. Zootaxa 1418:1-628. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors.
2019. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, ( 12/2019 ). Kailola, P.J., 1999. Ariidae (=Tachysuridae):
sea catfishes (fork-tailed catfishes). p. 1827-1879.
In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species
identification guide for fishery purposes. The living
marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol.
3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1
(Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. Netuma bilineata in Fishes of Australia,
accessed 04 Sep 2020. Fishes