Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total):
5 - 6; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 20 - 25. The
body is stocky, the head a little depressed, the inferior
jaw a little prognathous, the cephalic helmet covered
with finely pigmented skin in adults, with a fontanelle
shorter than the orbital diameter. Occurs in swamps.
Well-adapted to hypoxic environments, being able to
survive for hours, emerged. Reproduction:
The spiny structure of the pectoral fins enables the
male to hold the females during mating (internal fertilisation).
Sperm can be kept in the female's genital tract for
several months, owing to a gelatinous emission from
the seminal vesicle of the male. At maturity, the
size of the adhesive eggs (20% of the female's weight)
is 3 mm. Nine days after hatching, alevin size is
1.5 cm and they feed on microscopic worms or small
insects. At around 11 days, their negative phototropism
pushes them to hide themselves under branches or rocks.
Aquarium Care: As with most species
in this family they need hiding places such as pipes/caves
where they will reside most of the day. Will come
out at night to prowl so smaller fishes will be looked
upon as prey although this is not one of the most
aggressive members of this family. Diet:
In its natural habitat the adults feed on small fishes,
arthropods, worms and sometimes on fruits. In the
aquaria most prepared foods such as tablet and pellet
and frozen foods such as bloodworm. If the aquarium
is dimly lit you can see the it coming out to feed.
Depending what river system they are imported from
they can be variable in colouration, from light to
dark. The last thumbnail specimen from Colombia shows
this trait and it may turn out to be T. galeatus
or an undescribed species. This genus is in need of
revision in the future.
South America:Brazil, French Guiana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad
Boujard, T., M. Pascal,
F.J. Meunier and P.-Y. Le Bail
1997 Poissons de Guyane. Guide écologique de
l'Approuague et de la réserve des Nouragues.
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris,
219 p. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors.
2009. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, version (01/2011). Grant, Steven. pers comm.