This genera is similar to
the Ancistrus in appearance. They possess
three stout odonodes concealed beneath the gill covers
which act as a defense mechanism. Hopliancistrus
tricornis is distinguished from its congeners
by having four branched rays on anal fin (vs. five
branched rays). Description: Hopliancistrus
munduruku is distinguished from its congeners
having large yellowish-white spots along the body,
and dark brown spots on fins (vs. body covered by
conspicuous small greenish-yellow dots of similar
size on head, trunk and fins in H.
wolverine; yellowish-white spots on
posterior portion of the body moderate in size, usually
smaller than pupil in H. xikrin; all fins covered
by large yellowish-white spots in H. xavante).
Can be distinguished from H. tricornis and
H. wolverine by the connection strut between
the anterior process of the compound pterotic and
main body shaped as a continuous sheet (vs. connection
strut narrow and bar-shaped, leaving a large posterior
gap, see Fig 6). Also differs from H. tricornis
by the possession of five branched anal-fin rays (vs.
four), and from H. wolverine and H. xikrin
by pectoral-fin spine length 24.5–30.9% of SL
(vs. 32.1–38.4% of SL and 32.1–35.7% of
SL, respectively). It differs from H. xikrin
by the transverse processes of first and second dorsal-fin
pterygiophores sutured to each other (vs. absence
of contact between the transverse processes of first
and second dorsal-fin pterygiophores). It differs
from H. xavante by caudal peduncle depth
10.1– 11.3% of SL (vs. 11.5–12.9% of SL);
by a narrow nasal bone plate (vs. broad nasal, sometimes
slightly triangular, see Fig 2); and by having nuchal
plate exposed and covered by odontodes (vs. nuchal
plate covered by thick skin and usually lacking odontodes.
Habitat: Hopliancistrus munduruku
is currently known from upper Rio Jamanxim, Rio Tapajo´s
basin, and upper Rio Curua', tributary of Rio Iriri,
Rio Xingu basin, in the Novo Progresso municipality,
Para' State. This disjunct distribution between upper
tributaries to Tapajo's and Xingu basin suggests,
like in other taxa, drainage capture by geologic events.
Aquarium Care: Likes a current in the aquarium
and are peaceful habitants. Likes a higher temperature
and need frequent water changes to keep them in good
health. Sexual Differences: Males
posses a broad head region and more prominent bristling
on the edge of the snout. Diet: Omnivore;
veg foods such as lettuce, spinach, cucumber and veg.
tablets. Live and frozen foods such as Cyclops, Daphnia
and brine shrimp. Entomology: Named
after the Munduruku, a large indigenous group inhabiting
a large part of the southwestern Para' State along
the Rio Tapajo's until the Rio Madeira in the Amazon
State and the northern part of the Mato Grosso State
in Brasil. The Munduruku people are well known for
being powerful warriors and great strategists, and
in recent years they have drawn much attention for
the fight against the hydroelectric dams in the Xingu
and the ones planned in the Tapajo's Rivers.
South America:Brazil, Rio Jamanxim.
I. 2008. Back
to Nature guide to L-catfishes, Ettlingen, Germany 208
p. de Oliveira RR, Zuanon
J, Py-Daniel LHR, Birindelli JLO, Sousa LM
(2021) Taxonomic revision of Hopliancistrus Isbru¨cker
& Nijssen, 1989 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with
redescription of Hopliancistrus tricornis and description
of four new species. PLoS ONE 16(1): e0244894.