This genera is similar to
the Ancistrus in appearance. They possess
three stout odonodes concealed beneath the gill covers
which act as a defense mechanism. Hopliancistrus
tricornis is distinguished from its congeners
by having four branched rays on anal fin (vs. five
branched rays). Description: Hopliancistrus
xavante can be distinguished from its congeners
by the nuchal plate covered by thick skin, and usually
lacking odontodes (vs. nuchal plate exposed and covered
by odontodes); by having a broad nasal bone plate,
sometimes slightly triangular (vs. narrow nasal);
and by the trunk and fins covered by large yellowish-white
spots (vs. dorsal, caudal, and anal fins covered by
dark brown to black spots in H. tricornis,
H. munduruku, and H. xikrin; body
covered by conspicuous small greenish-yellow dots
of similar size on head, trunk, and fins in H.
wolverine). Can be further distinguished from
its congeners by a combination of additional characters:
it differs from its congeners except H. wolverine
by caudal peduncle depth 11.5–12.9% of SL (vs.
9.7–11.3% in H. tricornis, 10.1–11.3%
in H. munduruku, 10.0–11.0% in H.
xikrin). Differs from H. tricornis and
H. wolverine by connection strut between
anterior process of compound pterotic and main body
shaped as a continuous sheet (vs. connection strut
narrow and bar-shaped, leaving a large posterior gap.
It differs from Hopliancistrus xikrin by
the transverse processes of first and second dorsal-fin
pterygiophores sutured to each other (vs. absence
of contact between the transverse processes of first
and second dorsal-fin pterygiophores). Also differs
from H. tricornis by the possession of five
branched rays on anal-fin (vs. four).
Habitat: Hopliancistrus xavante
is currently known from small tributaries of the middle
portion of Rio Xingu (Fresco and Jauri rivers) and
upper Rio Xingu basin at Cachoeira von Martius and
its tributaries such as Rio Culuene, Rio Curisevo,
and Rio Sucuri. Aquarium Care: Likes
a current in the aquarium and are peaceful habitants.
Likes a higher temperature and need frequent water
changes to keep them in good health. Sexual
Differences: Males posses a broad head region
and more prominent bristling on the edge of the snout.
Diet: Omnivore; veg foods such as lettuce,
spinach, cucumber and veg. tablets. Live and frozen
foods such as Cyclops, Daphnia and brine shrimp. Etymology:
The new species is named after the Xavante, an indigenous
ethnic group nowadays inhabiting several Indigenous
Lands that form part of its earlier territory of traditional
occupation, in the region comprised by the Serra do
Roncador and the valleys of the Rio das Mortes, Rio
Culuene, Rio Couto de Magalhães, Rio Batovi,
and Rio Garc¸as, in the eastern Mato Grosso
South America:Brazil, upper Rio Xingu basin.
RR, Zuanon J, Py-Daniel LHR, Birindelli JLO, Sousa LM
(2021) Taxonomic revision of Hopliancistrus Isbru¨cker
& Nijssen, 1989 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with
redescription of Hopliancistrus tricornis and description
of four new species. PLoS ONE 16(1): e0244894.
2008. Back to Nature guide to L-catfishes, Ettlingen,
Germany 208 p.