Body moderately robust; head relatively long, depressed;
snout moderately long, rounded across front; eye small
(3.2-4.2% SL); top of head rough at rear, covered
with thin skin; groove on top of head discontinuous
- a short fleshy, wide, inconspicuous groove on snout
that reaches to level of front nostrils, rear, bony
part is narrow, inconspicuous, very shallow, with
parallel, irregular margins; bony process behind head
shield, funnel shaped, wide and relatively long (10.4-11.9%
SL); 3 pairs of barbells (on chin and both jaws),
top barbell reaches past base of pectoral spine, longest
lower barbell reaches past gill membrane; gill opening
restricted to sides by adhesion of gill membranes
to breast; gill rakers 15 (14-17) on 1st arch, 15-17
on 2nd, rakers present on posterior surface of all
gill arches; lips relatively thin; jaws wide, with
large teeth; teeth at front of top jaw in a continuous
broad band; rear lower teeth are small molars; palate
teeth large, molariform, in two large oval patches
that touch or nearly do at front, more oblique than
horizontal, tooth patches considerably larger in females;
jaw teeth in several rows, front teeth smaller than
back; dorsal rays I, 7, dorsal spine short (18.4-20.4%
SL), much thinner than pectoral spine; anal rays 23
(22-24); pectoral rays I, 10-11, pectoral spine short,
thick finely serrated; tail fin with short, wide,
rounded lobes. Habitat: Inhabits
shallow marine waters and brackish estuaries. Colouration:
Dark blue or brownish on back, silvery white on sides
and belly; fins dusky.
and Central America: Pacific draining rivers
of the Americas from Mexico to Ecuador. Type
D R Robertson and Gerald R Allen. 2015. Shorefishes
of the Tropical Eastern Pacific: online information
system. Version 2.0 Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute, Balboa, Panamá. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors.
2019. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, ( 12/2019 ). Ferraris, C.J. Jr., 2007. Checklist
of catfishes, recent and fossil (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes),
and catalogue of siluriform primary types. Zootaxa
1418:1-628. Kailola, P.J. and W.A. Bussing, 1995.
Ariidae. Bagres marinos. p. 860-886. In W. Fischer,
F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter
and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de
Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental.
3 Vols. FAO, Rome.