month of September 2012 welcomes back again, Asian
Catfish expert Adrian Taylor of the Catfish Study
at a small hillstream catfish of the Akysidae family,
Parakysis verrucosas. Now over to Adrian.
Members of the genera Parakysis
are at the moment few in number, with only 6 species
making up this genus. Their range seems to be restricted
to the Malay Peninsula, through to the Greater Sunda
Isles; of Borneo, Indonesia and Sumatra.
can easily be distinguished from the species that
make up the genera Akysis and Pseudobagarius
as they do not possess an adipose fin as such; having
only what is called an adipose ridge, which can at
times be hard to distinguish as it is shallow and
runs along the median of the dorsum surface.
- dorsal view
verrucosus although preferring cool temperatures
of around 19°C to 23°C will tolerate warmer
temperatures as long as attention is paid to water
quality and has a high oxygen content. Water having
pH values of between 6.7 and 7.2 should be provided,
as these small ‘stream cats’ tend not
to tolerate for any length of time p.H values that
fall outside this range.
An aquarium having
a gravel substrate and containing areas of pebbles,
small rocks and a scattering of small grass like plants
would make an ideal set up for these little hillstream
Peninsula, through to the Greater Sunda Isles; of
Borneo, Indonesia and Sumatra.
P. verrucosus has
a narrow head with small, subcutaneous eyes. The upper
lip has a median lobe projecting into a median concavity
on the lower lip. There are 1-2 branches on the outer
mandibular barbel. The inner mandibular barbel has
2-3 long, thin branches; the first 2 are almost always
joined at the base. The mandibular latero-sensory
canal has a pore lateral to the inner and outer mandibular
barbels. Body tubercles are small. The dorsal fin
has 1 spine and 4 rays; the first 2-3 rays are simple,
the last 1-2 rays are branched. The pectoral fin has
1 spine and 5-6 rays; the innermost ray is sometimes
branched; the 4-5 median rays are branched, and the
outermost ray is sometimes simple. The pelvic fin
has 5-6 rays; the first ray is simple, the 3-4 median
rays are branched, and the last 2 rays are simple.
The anal fin has 8-10 rays; the first 5-6 rays are
simple, the last 2-5 rays are branched. The caudal
fin has 12-13 rays; the uppermost and lowermost principal
rays are simple, the 10-11 median rays are branched.
Ruddy brown coloured ‘stream
catfish’ having ochre coloured granulations
(raised spots) that run horizontally along its body
and the ventral surface being ochre to light lemon
in colouration. The barbels are barred with brown
and ochre colouration.
Care & Compatibility
Fish such as Brachydanio
rosaeus and Barbus rhombocellatus would
make excellent tank companions for these small, but
somewhat inconspicuous members of the Akysidae family.
As yet there are
no reports of any Parakysis breeding success’s
in the home aquarium; although, it may well be that
they spawn similarly to Akysis vespa as reported
upon by H H Ng & M Kottelat in their 2004 scientific
paper on Akysis vespa.
is hard to discern, but it is thought that the females
maybe wider in the ventral area than the males when
they are in optimum spawning condition.
A diet of live foods such as:
Daphnia, Cyclops, small bloodworms and white worms
should be offered, as like most of the sub-family
‘Parakysinae’, Parakysis verrucosus
tends not to feed upon commercially prepared dried
foods; although they will accept small frozen bloodworms.
Fleshy finlike projection without rays, behind the
rayed dorsal fin. Dorsum:
The upper (dorsal) surface of the head or body.
Greek, para = the side of + Greek, kysthos = bladder.
H. and K. K. P. Lim.
1995. A revision of the southeast Asian catfish genus
Parakysis (Teleostei: Akysidae), with descriptions
of two new species. Ichthyological Exploration of
Freshwaters 6 (3): 255-266. Ng, H. H. and
M. Kottelat. 2003. Parakysis notialis, a
new species of akysid catfish from Borneo (Siluriformes:
Akysidae). Ichthyological Research 50: 48-51. Taylor, Adrian.pers.