The genus Harttia belongs to the subfamily
Loricariinae and has to date 27 described species,
distributed in the drainages of Guiana Shield, Amazon
and southeastern Brazil. The new species (H. canastra)
is distinguished from its congeners by the combination
of: canal plate present; abdominal plates absent;
trapezoid preanal plates; males with elongated and
conspicuous odontodes on the first pectoral-fin ray
and on the lateral region of the head, close to the
canal plate; and dorsal-fin spinelet present (Caldas
et. al 2022). Habitat: Several locations
in the Rio São Francisco basin, mainly headwater
streams around the Parque Nacional Serra da Canastra,
Municipality of São Roque de Minas, State of
Minas Gerais (Caldas et. al 2022) Aquarium
Care: Not the easiest genera to keep as they
will need clean, oxygen rich water and a strong current.
They will also need reduced temperatures in the aquarium
due to their southern habitats. Does not do well in
imports due to its difficulty in traveling containers.
Sexual Differences: Males tend to
have odontodes (hair like structures) on the first
ray of the pectoral fins and the head in males is
broader. Diet: Grazes on microscopic
algae, mostly diatoms and green algae growing on rugged
and light-coloured rocks, and submersed vegetation.
Chironomid and simuliid larvae, as well as tiny crustaceans,
are recorded in its diet. When scraping algae off
the substrate, the fish makes vigorous mouth movements
and jerky movements, probably related to its mouth
making alternate grazing and attaching to the substrate.
In the aquarium feed dry foods, algae wafers, Spirulina
and normal tablet foods. Frozen foods, Artemia
nauplii, glass worms and Daphnia. Etymology:
The name “canastra” refers to the Serra
da Canastra, a mountain range located in the center-south
of the state of Minas Gerais, which houses the headwaters
of the rio São Francisco, where most of the
specimens were collected. A noun in apposition.
South America:Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.
L, Cherobim AM, Langeani F. A new species of
Harttia from the rio São Francisco basin (Siluriformes:
Loricariidae). Neotrop Ichthyol. 2022.