This genera is similar to
the Ancistrus in appearance. They possess
three stout odonodes concealed beneath the gill covers
which act as a defense mechanism. Hopliancistrus
tricornis is distinguished from its congeners
by having four branched rays on anal fin (vs. five
branched rays). Description: Hopliancistrus
xikrin is distinguished from its congeners by
having ground body colour brown with fainted whitish-yellow
spots of moderate size (usually smaller than pupil)
on posterior portion of body (vs. body colour black
or dark olive covered by conspicuous greenish-yellow
smalls dots of similar size on head, trunk and fins
colour brown with large fainted whitish-yellow spots
on posterior portion of the body, spots always larger
than pupil in H.
munduruku and H. xavante).
Can be further distinguished from its congeners by
the absence of contact between the transverse processes
of first and second dorsal-fin pterygiophores (vs.
the transverse processes of first and second dorsal-fin
pterygiophores sutured to each other). Distinguished
from its congeners except H. wolverine by
pectoral-fin spine length 32.1–35.7% of SL (vs.
25.1–29.9% in H. tricornis, 24.5–30.9%
in H. munduruku and 27.4–30.8% of SL
in H. xavante). Also differs from H.
tricornis and H. wolverine by the connection
strut between anteroventral process of compound pterotic
and the main body shaped as a continuous sheet (vs.
connection strut narrow and bar-shaped, leaving a
large posterior gap). Differs from H. xavante
by having dorsal, caudal, and anal fins covered by
dark brown to black spots (vs. all fins covered by
large yellowish-white spots); by narrow nasal bone
plate (vs. nasal broad, sometimes slightly triangular,
see Fig 2); by having nuchal plate exposed, and covered
by odontodes (vs. nuchal plate covered by thick skin
and usually lacking odontodes) and by caudal peduncle
depth 10.0–11.0% of SL (vs. 11.5–12.9%
of SL). Also differs from H. tricornis by
the possession of five branched rays on anal-fin (vs.
four). Habitat: Hopliancistrus
xikrin is known from small to medium-sized tributaries
of the middle portion of Rio Xingu, like Rio Bacaja'
and Rio Bacajai', at the Volta Grande area.
Aquarium Care: Likes a current in the aquarium
and are peaceful habitants. Likes a higher temperature
and need frequent water changes to keep them in good
health. Sexual Differences: Males
posses a broad head region and more prominent bristling
on the edge of the snout. Diet: Omnivore;
veg foods such as lettuce, spinach, cucumber and veg.
tablets. Live and frozen foods such as Cyclops, Daphnia
and brine shrimp. Etymology: The
new species is named after the Xikrin, an indigenous
ethnic group inhabiting the Rio Bacaja' margins. The
Xikrin people belong to the "Je" linguistic
trunk, calling themselves "Mebengokre".
They are related to the Kayapo people with whom they
share the same self-denomination, cultural characteristics
such as body painting patterns, language, residence
and marital relations, rituals, chants, and naming
South America:Brazil, Rio Iriri.
RR, Zuanon J, Py-Daniel LHR, Birindelli JLO, Sousa LM
(2021) Taxonomic revision of Hopliancistrus Isbru¨cker
& Nijssen, 1989 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with
redescription of Hopliancistrus tricornis and description
of four new species.
2008. Back to Nature guide to L-catfishes, Ettlingen,
Germany 208 p.