he Ariidae family is not that well covered in online literature
so I thought "why not" so I have hand picked a species
that you would not keep in your home aquarium due to its adult
size and migratory habits, The Pemecou sea catfish, Sciades
herzbergii - adult
This species may be confused with
Sciades couma, although it is much more frequent
than S. couma. Adults occur in turbid estuaries,
mangrove-lined lagoons and lower parts of rivers being very
tolerant to changes in salinity. Found on shallow soft bottoms.
Feed on a large variety of bottom-living and pelagic organisms
including those found among the roots of mangroves.
- head view
This species is widely distributed and
can be very common. It is a targeted species in artisanal fisheries,
principally in the north and northeast of Brazil. It may be susceptible
to habitat loss in mangrove, estuarine areas. At present neither
habitat loss or fishing pressure is considered a major threat
to this species. It is listed as Least Concern with a recommendation
to monitor its fished population and study its life history. (The
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015).
Sciades herzbergii commonly occurs
in turbid estuaries, mangrove-lined lagoons and lower parts of
rivers. It is very tolerant of changes in salinity, also occurring
in hypersaline waters and occasionally shallow marine waters.
The spines of this species are poisonous
and may inflict painful wounds that sometimes result in long-lasting
Presence of a furrow, partly covered by
a flap of skin, extending across the snout between the posterior
nostrils; snout long and rounded, mouth slightly inferior; supra-occipital
process slightly keeled; usually 21-23 gill rakers on second arch,
palatine teeth patch always with an U-form; medium sized species;
soft rays in pectoral fins usually 10 or 11.
Grey colour to dark brown above, whitish below.
All fins have a touch of red/pink.
Grows too large for
the home aquarium.
Grows too large for the home aquarium.
Reproduction occurs between September and
December. A female lays 20-30 eggs, with a diameter of 10-12 mm.
Males incubate the eggs in their mouth. Females reach maturity
at a younger age than males and grow faster. The male incubates
28-40 eggs in the mouth and 200-400 eggs that are fixed in a glutinous
mass on its head. Incubation takes 10-12 days. After 50-60 days
fully functional young (6-6.5 cm TL) are released.
Fishes, worms, pelagic micro-crustaceans,
benthic shrimps and detritus.
process: Unpaired bone at the back of the skull,
usually with a crest.
Gill rakers: Structure
on the upper portion of the gill arches.
Pectoral fins: The
paired fins just behind the head.
The teeth present on the palatine
bone which lies laterally in the roof of the mouth.
M.I.M. Alves and M.S.C. de Mesquita, 1994. Alguns aspectos
da reprodução do bagre branco, Selenapsis herzbergii
(Bloch 1794), Pisces: Ostariophysi, Siluriformes, Ariidae. Bol.
Tec. DNOCS. 47/52(1/2):43-78.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2015.FishBase.
World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, ( 08/2016
Betancur, R., Marceniuk, A.P., Giarrizzo, T. & Fredou,
F.L. 2015. Sciades herzbergii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species 2015: e.T190245A1945803. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T190245A1945803.en
Mol, H.A. Jan, The Freshwater
Fishes of Suriname. BRILL, Leiden Boston, 2012. 889 p.
de Souza Gama
The Photographer (Own work)
[CC0], via Wikimedia
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species