From Anjos et al. Integrative approaches are particularly
useful to resolve taxonomic uncertainties in species-rich
groups that have undergone explosive radiation, such
as Hypostomini (suckermouth armored catfishes). This
tribe encompasses the genera Hypostomus and
Pterygoplichthys, but the actual number of
species in each genus and the intergeneric interrelationships
are confusing or unknown for some ecoregions in the
Neotropics. Here, we analyzed three endemic species
Hypostomus chrysostiktos, H. jaguar and
H. unae from Northeastern Mata Atlântica
in northeastern Brazil based on meristic characters,
geometric morphometrics, chromosomal data, DNA barcode
and species delimitation algorithms. The current taxonomic
status of these catfishes is challenged. While H.
unae and H. jaguar revealed a close
evolutionary relationship similar to those observed
within Hypostomus from other basins, H.
chrysostiktos was herein more closely related
to Pterygoplichthys, being invariably recovered
as a highly distinctive taxonomic unit than to Hypostomus.
Therefore, we recommend the reallocation of H.
chrysostiktos as Pterygoplichthys chrysostiktos
and a thorough systematic review of Pterygoplichthys,
particularly focusing on putative convergence traits
in relation to Hypostomus (abstract: Anjos
et al 2019).Still Found on some
online sources asHypostomus
Found in dark water stretches of rivers with rocky
bottom, at altitudes from 50-662 meters above sea
level. Aquarium Care: Whatever the
status of this species it will be reasonably peaceful,
if large species, which will need a good sized aquarium
starting of with a 3 footer (90cm) when small and
progressing to a larger tank with good external filtration
to facilitate a good oxygen content, as it excretes
copious amounts of waste if fed properly on vegetable
matter. If the water quality is not adhered to, small
holes can appear in the fin membranes. You will notice
when your water quality is not up to the mark as they
"hang" in the water just of their fins,
from the substrate, which means 'get that water change
done'. It is kind to plants in the aquarium, the only
problem is when it gets bigger and can uproot them
in its conquest around the tank. Very hardy species
which will do well in normal aquarium temperatures.
You can identify a Pterygoplichthys species
from Hypostomus for example due to the many
more rays in the dorsal fin, which can be up to 10
or over. They also have nasal flutes on the nose.Diet: They are mostly vegetarian
with algae being their number one source of food but
to keep a large fish fed on algae alone is impossible
so you can feed also, spinach, blanched lettuce, cucumber,
courgette (zucchini) and also non veg food such as
tablets and prawns. Etymology:
Derived from the Greek chrysos (after gold), and stiktus
(after spotted), in allusion to the bright yellow
spots present in the living specimens. Remarks:
First described as Hypostomus chrysostiktos
in 2007 by Birindelli et al.but in 2019
this species was moved into the Pterygoplichthys
genera by Anjos et al.
Known only from the Rio Paraguaçu basin in
Anjos, M. S., J. A.
Bitencourt, L. A. Nunes, L. M. Sarmento-Soares, D.
C. Carvalho, J. W. Armbruster and P. R. A. M. Affonso
2020 (Jan.) Species delimitation based on integrative
approach suggests reallocation of genus in Hypostomini
catfish (Siluriformes, Loricariidae).
Birindelli, J.L.O., A.M. Zanata and F.C.T. Lima,
2007. Hypostomus chrysostiktos, a new species of armored
catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from rio Paraguaçu,
Bahia State, Brazil. Neotrop. Ichthyol. 5(3):271-278. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors.
2022. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, ( 02/2022 )