timbira Leão, Carvalho, Reis & Wosiacki,
contributors to this species:
Henry Sabaj (2)
Pseudobunocephalus timbira, new species,
is described from streams of the lower Tocantins and
the Mearim river drainages, in North and Northeast
of Brazil, and can be distinguished from all congeners
by having the second hypobranchial and the third basibranchial
cartilaginous (vs. ossified). Additionally, it can
be dintinguished from P. lundbergi by the
following putative apomorphic features within Pseudobunocephalus:
posterolateral process of premaxilla present (vs.
absent); bony knobs in dorsal lamina of Weberian apparatus
absent (vs. present); distal end of posterior margin
of 5th parapophysis not enlarged (vs. enlarged); number
of ribs three (vs. four or five) and infraorbital
sensory canal entering neurocranium via frontal (vs.
via sphenotic). It is distinguished from P. bifidus
and P. iheringii by having a gracile body
not surpassing 34 mm SL (vs. robust body, reaching
up to 59 mm SL, respectively); by having the posterior
margin of cranial fontanel concave (vs. posterior
margin somewhat straight with parieto-supraoccipital
extending anteriorly); by having a conspicuous knobby
ornamentation on dorsal surface of skull (vs. skull
knobs slightly pronounced); by having Weberian ventral
blade of hemal canal opened (vs. closed) and by the
absence of serrations on the proximal portion of the
anterior margin of pectoral-fin spine (vs. serrations
covering entire anterior margin of the pectoral spine).
Additionally, it can be distinguished from P.
amazonicus, P. rugosus and P. quadriradiatus,
by having the posterolateral mental barbel with at
least one fleshy lobe located proximally along the
posterior margin (vs. posterolateral mental barbel
simple, not having fleshy lobes). It also differs
from P. amazonicus and P. rugosus
by having five branchiostegal rays (vs. four). It
also can be distinguished from P. amazonicus
by having the contact of hyomandibula cartilage with
neurocranium limited to the sphenotic (vs. extending
to both sphenotic and pterotic); by having the ventral
blade of Weberian apparatus open (vs. closed) and
by anterior exit of hemal canal in abdominal vertebra
(vs. in complex vertebra); from P. rugosus
by colouration of proximal portion of caudal fin similar
to rest of caudal fin (vs. clear patch) and from P.
quadriradiatus by the total number of pectoral
fin-rays six (vs. five). Variable characteristics
within Pseudobunocephalus species are summarised
and comments on the phylogenetic relationships and
the disjunct distribution of the new species are made
Aquarium Care: Small species that
can probably be kept as per other members of this
family with a quite tank with sand and plants. Diet:
Tablet foods and small live foods.
South America:Lower Tocantins and the Mearim river drainages,
in North and Northeast of Brazil. Type
Locality: Jundiá Creek, Mearim River
basin, Alto Alegre do Pindaré, Maranhão,
Brazil, 3°39'14"S, 45°42'19"W.
2008 Pseudobunocephalus, a new genus of banjo catfish
with the description of a new species from the Orinoco
River system of Colombia and Venezuela (Siluriformes:
Aspredinidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 6(3):293-300.
Carvalho, Reis & Wosiacki.
A new species of Pseudobunocephalus Friel, 2008 (Siluriformes:
Aspredinidae) from the lower Tocantins and Mearim
river drainages, North and Northeast of Brazil. Zootaxa
4586 (1): 109–126.