Dorsal spines (total): 1; Dorsal soft rays (total):
6; Anal soft rays: 11 - 15. Body elongated, without
scales but with a range of 33-35 spiny bony plaque
which runs along the length of the lateral, starting
from the extreme end of the caudal fin up to the point
directly below the origin of the dorsal fin. Head
is pointed and laterally compressed, its width being
far less than its length. Eyes are high and are situated
in the posterior half of the head. Mouth is inferior,
provided with a pair of maxillary barbels branching
into 12 or 13 branches and 4 short mandibular barbels.
Adipose fin short. Remarks: Can emit
sounds by moving its pectoral spines. Every basic
unit of sound emitted lasts for 60-70 millisecond,
with a frequency of 60-90 Hertz corresponding to the
reply frequency of the muscles utilised.
Essequibo River basin and other coastal drainages
east to mouth of Amazon River, possibly in lower Amazon
and lower Orinoco River basins.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly.
Editors. 2019. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic
publication. www.fishbase.org, ( 04/2019 ).