to the increased popularity of the new CW numbers
of Corydoras and the ever increasing L-numbers
of the Loricariidae the Hoplosternum genera
tend to be overlooked as they have been available
in the hobby for as long as I can remember, but from
recent comments from aquarists this is still a real
favourite among catfish aficionado's.
littorale inhabits swamps and during the rainy
season adults consume a great quantity of chironomids
associated with detritus. During the dry season, they
feed mostly on terrestrial insects, micro-crustaceans,
aquatic Diptera, and detritus and absorb a great quantity
of anaerobic bacteria from the substrate. First reproduction
occurs after one year. Used to be cultured commercially
in Guyana. Cultured in Trinidad on a semi-commercial
Bolivia, Brazil, Fr Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam,
Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Second infraorbital bone extremely
developed, articulating with the pterotic-supracleithrum
and covering the entire area of skin between eye and
opercle; coracoids exposed ventrally but not in contact
in the midline even in fully matured males; 4-6 scutes
of upper lateral series with lateral line perforations.
Upper parts of body and fins
black/brown. Underside slightly lighter.
Care & Compatibility
Peaceful. As they can grow
to a reasonable size they will predate on small fish
so as long as companions are the same size in a good
sized aquarium with plenty of room they will be fine.
Provide large Echinodorus plants in pots
as they will dig plants up if planted in the substrate.
Provide floating plants at the surface to darken the
aquarium and also provide strong filtration in the
They are bubble
nesters so the male will build a nest at the surface.
You could also place a piece of polystyrene in the
tank as the male will often use this to build the
nest. After the eggs are laid the male will chase
the female away and guard the nest. It may be advisable
to move the female from the tank as the male will
get quite aggressive. The eggs will hatch in three
days and the fry should be fed small foods such as
Brine shrimp naupli and crushed flake or fry flakes,
manufactered small grain foods. You may have to remove
the male at this point but this will depend from species
Sexually mature males have
a thick first ray to the pectoral fin which in adult
specimens can turn upwards. The
females have a thin first ray to the pectoral fin.
Worm foods, tablets, live and
frozen foods. Not a fussy eater.
and lower section of the pectoral girdle. Opercle: The bony covering of the gills
of fishes. Caudal fin: The tail. Scutes:Bony covering. Lateral
line, along the sides of the body.
Pectoral fin: The paired fins just behind the
armed sternum, (breast).
H.A. and R. Riehl 1985
Aquarien atlas. Band 2. Mergus, Verlag für Natur-
und Heimtierkunde GmbH, Melle, Germany. 1216 p. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2009.
FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org,
version (04/2011). Reis, Roberto E. 1996. Hoplosternum
Gill 1858. Version 29 April 1996. The Tree of Life Web