species is named macrocephalus for its large head: macro-
(large) and cephalus (head) - (Cnidoglanis macrocephalus).
wing, (referring to the fins).
the Greek makros, meaning long and stoma, meaning mouth;
in reference to the size of the mouth.
a geographical locality.
From the Magdalena
River, South America.
senior to another.
The specific name honours
Luiz Roberto Malabarba for his active contribution to
the knowledge of the Neotropical ichthyofauna.
Named for the older
name for the region of northern Kerala, (‘Malabar’)
in which this species occurs (Glyptothorax malabarensis).
the Malabar coast, India.
the Rio Mamore for this Corydoras species.
the Inca Ayar Manco, coloniser of Cuzco, the “Moses
of the Peruvian Indians”, who, about 1100 A.D. led
the exodus from Tampu-tocco.” (Eigenmann & Allen,
the Latin "mandibula" (lower jaw), probably
refering to the rather well developed mandibular barbels.
specific name for Arius manillensis found in
the area around Manila, The Philippines.
specific epithet marapoama is in reference to the county
of the city in which the new species was collected. It
is treated as a noun in apposition.
for the type locality of this Ancistrus; Marcapata
Valley, E. Peru.
with a margin (edge).
The specific epithet
is Latin for “adorned with pearls,” referring
to the dense white spots on the body.
a personal name.
honour of Martha Ruth Myers, wife of Dr.G.S. Myers.
In honour of Martha
honour of Dr.G. Mees of the Leiden Natural History Museum,
From the Greek megale,
meaning large, and pteryx, meaning wing or fin, alluding
to its large pectoral fin.
latinised form of the ancient Greek word megistos, which
means “the greatest”.
From the Greek melan
= 'black' and histion = 'sail', alluding to the
From the Greek
melan = 'black' and the Latin taenia = ribbon,
fillet , tapeworm.
Named in honour of
Dr. Douglas Melin.
to the presence of a membrane on the barbels of this Synodontis.
sp. was named in honour of its collector, R.S. de Menezes.
epithet “mephisto” refers to the shortened
name of Mephistopheles, demon from the German folklore.
Mephistopheles comes from the Greek by the combination
of three words: (me), a negation, (phos), meaning light,
and (philis), meaning loving, literally “not-light-loving”,
or the one who does not love the light, making allusion
to the subterranean behavior of the new species. A noun
From the River (Rio)
Meta, South America (Colombia).
specific name refers to the type locality, Meta River,
a tributary of the Orinoco River in Colombia and Venezuela.
From the Greek; mikros
= small; akantha = thorn, prickle.
the Greek, mikros = small; galaeus = helmet.
scales on the belly.
From the Greek, mikros
= small; maculatus;
the Greek, mikros = small. From
the Latin punctatus = 'spotted'.
name derived from a Latin word, mimulus, diminutive of
minus, meaning actor, given with reference to the mimicry
in colour pattern with Corydoras diphyes.
Minute, known for its
to Misiones, the Argentinian Province containing the type
curtailed, probably referring to the short appearance
of this fish (Noturus).
epithet specific mojicai, is a tribute to the Doctor José
Iván Mojica, Director of the Museum of Ichthyology
of the Institute of natural sciences of the National University
of Colombia - Bogotá, for his contributions to
the knowledge of the Colombian Ichthyology.
The specific epithet
moijiri (Spinipterus moiijri) comes from Moijiri;
this species is known among the Paumari Indians that inhabit
the Río Tapauá, Purus basin. The meaning
of the word Moijiri is unknown so far. The Paumari language
belongs to the Arawa linguistic group.
after Dr. Jan Mol for his contributions to the knowledge
of Suriname’s fishes.
Named for its soft,
flexible dorsal spine.
William Morrow, who collected this fish.
Latin, mucosa, mucosus
= mucous. This refers to the numerous large pores under
the lower jaw, which Vallant refered to as mucous pores
(but are sensory pores).
Referring to the origin
of the type material of this species, collected in the
the Latin multi = 'many', and maculatus
= 'spotted', alluding to the many spots on the specimen.
Many (fin) rays.
after the Munduruku, a large indigenous group inhabiting
a large part of the southwestern Para' State along the
Rio Tapajo's until the Rio Madeira in the Amazon State
and the northern part of the Mato Grosso State in Brasil.
The Munduruku people are well known for being powerful
warriors and great strategists, and in recent years they
have drawn much attention for the fight against the hydroelectric
dams in the Xingu and the ones planned in the Tapajo's
From the Latin adjective
muricata, meaning spiny (like a murex), in reference to
its elongate dorsal and pectoral-fin spines.
meaning mouse gray and refers to its colour.
meaning whiskered. Mystus was first used by Belon
in 1553 to describe all fish with whiskers.